Centre for Automotive Safety Research (CASR) http://casr.adelaide.edu.au/publications/list/

Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) http://www.monash.edu.au/muarc/

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Australian and New Zealand Road System and Road Authorities
National Performance Indicators
In this website you will find performance data on the Australian and New Zealand road systems and the road authorities who are responsible for their management.


Vulnerable Road Users

The Joint Standing Committee on Road Safety of Parliament of New South Wales, produced a report Vulnerable Road Users: Inquiry into Motorcycle and Bicycle Safety, Report No. 5/54 – December 2010.

You can read the complete report (78 pages) at

I produced a file of extracts (12 pages) but I cannot see how to add the file here. Contact me if you want me to forward my file to you.

Local bike paths mean higher house prices
(Increased house values and business will increase council rates and coffers. Let your local council know as you seek installation of good bicycle paths.)

Transport planner Rachel Smith writes: On April Fool’s Day Fairfax Media posted a video affirming that the new inner Sydney cycleways have had a positive effect on property prices. It was no joke. It seems that having a bikeway right outside your front door is good for your health and the value of your house.
. . .
Research in 2007 [PDF] by Alison Lee sought to identify the economic value of replacing car parking with bike parking in shopping strips. The case study in Lygon Street Carlton in Melbourne showed that cycling generates 3.6 times more expenditure. Even though a car user spends more per hour on average compared to a bike rider, the small area of public space required for bike parking suggests that each square metre allocated to bike parking generates $31 per hour, compared to $6 generated for each square metre used for a car parking space, with food/drink and clothing retailers benefiting the most from bike riders.
. . .
Despite the early controversy to change, Sydney’s Lord Mayor knows the bikeways have been a success. Votes for her in the polling booths close to the bikeways have been maintained or increased… seems like bikeways can be good for wallets, waistlines and the pollies that support them.

More at this link, including more links.

Bicycle and motor vehicle crash characteristics

Monash University Accident Research Centre - Report #251 [2006]

Authors: Watson, LM & Cameron, MH


Full report in .pdf format [3.5MB]



This report describes the characteristics of crashes involving bicycles and motor vehicles and was based on data on police reported crashes in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia during 2000-2004.

Crashes involving 13,901 bicycle riders were matched to colliding motor vehicles and their drivers. These collisions were used to describe characteristics of bicycle crash circumstances, demographics and serious injury outcomes of both bicycle riders and motorists involved.

Results of the research has been valuable in providing insight into understanding bicycle and motor vehicle collisions resulting in injury to the bicycle rider. Directions for further research have been suggested.

Sponsoring organisation - Amy Gillett Foundation


Extracts from Report

Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Crashes

Victorian, Queensland, Western Australian and South Australian crashes occurring during 200 – 2004.


Bicycle riders together with pedestrians and motorbike riders are among the most vulnerable road users.


Previous research (Newstead et al, 2004b) on unprotected road users found the average risk of death or serious injury for unprotected road users involved in reportable crashes is around 35%. This compares with an average serious injury risk of only 2.3% for light vehicle drivers in crashes with other light vehicles, only one fifteenth of the risk of an unprotected road user. Interpreting this in a total serious road trauma context shows the relative importance of reducing collisions of involving unprotected road users compared with crashes light vehicle drivers.


The combined data reported in Table 1 shows a total of 15,685 bicyclists were involved in police reported crashes of all crash types in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia during each of the years 2000 – 2004.


Table 2 describes the breakdown by crash type of 14,980 bicycle riders matched to colliding units (pedestrian, motorcycle, motor vehicle, other). Of interest for this report is the 13,901 bicycle riders matched to motor vehicles and it is this data that is described in the remaining sections of this report. Worse days Monday to Friday, worse times 2pm to 6pm, and 6am to 10am.


In SA:

85% of these crashes occurred during daylight. [Less cyclists at night, or safer to cycle at night?]

93.81% in dry conditions. [Less cyclists in the wet?]

80.21% were male cyclists. [Majority of cyclists are male.]

Age group 30-39 years involved in more crashes 16.82%, followed by 40-49 years with 13.5%.

87.08% injured.

12.92% killed or seriously injured.

54.27% male drivers, 35.42% female drivers, 10.31% gender unknown.


In general, crashes involving bicycle are seldom reported to the Police unless someone is killed or injured (usually the bicyclist) hence only injury crashes are considered here.


The average risk of death or serious injury for bicycle riders involved in the reportable crashes used in this study is around 27%.


Although most crashes occur during daytime, the severity of the crash is greater at night.


The injury outcome for an unprotected road user as the result of a collision with a 4WD vehicle was estimated to be significantly more severe than the outcome of a collision with a vehicle from either the large, medium or small market groups. Similarly the unprotected road user injury outcome is significantly more severe as a result of a collision with a commercial vehicle than a vehicle from either the large or medium vehicle market groups. (Note this study does not include trucks and buses.)


The high aggressivity of 4WD vehicles towards unprotected road users has been identified in many studies now and is believed to be a result of the geometric properties of these vehicles. Such properties include high frontal structures combined with hard contact surfaces often featuring the presence of a bull bar (Atwell and Glase, 2000). Similar features can also be found on many commercial vehicles and passenger vans, also explaining the high aggressivity of these vehicle classes.


Comparing the aggressivity of small, medium and large cars reveals a trend to decreasing aggressivity with increasing vehicle size. This is possibly the result of longer bonnet structures on larger cars meaning the unprotected road user is more likely to impact the softer bonnet area on these cars than hit the harder windscreen and a-pillar area of the car. This is particularly relevant for the vulnerable head region of the unprotected road user and is generally supported in a review by McLean (1996).


Table on page 24.


Motorists aged 30 to 39 were involved the most in collisions, followed by motorists in age groupings of 40 to 49 years and 20 to 25 years.



Atwell, R and Glase, K. (2000) Bull bars and road trauma. Report Number CR200, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Canberra, Australia.

McLean, AJ. (1996) Pedestrian friendly vehicle front structures: A review of the literature. Report Number CR166, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Canberra, Australia.


Reporting features differ by state.

Truck underrun panels to protect other road users.
I have not noticed underrun panels on all large trucks. I heard that the truck lobby does not like underrund panels. Also heard that these panels would decrease fuel consumption. Does anyone have the facts?

Extracts from Review of Truck Safety: Stage 1: Frontal, Side and Rear Underrun Protection
Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC). A research project for VicRoads. April 2002. Report No. 194. The full report can be found at http://www.monash.edu.au/muarc/

Page iii: Abstract:
The aim of the project is to review and report on the issue of front, rear and side underrun crashes. In particular this was defined as to:
– Review and collate the findings from major Australian studies examining underrun crashes involving heavy vehicles, including those that were carried out VicRoads and FORS during the 1990s.
– Carry out a literature review to identify any relevant overseas findings and developments subsequent to these studies in including any existing or proposed design standards for underrun protection.
– Produce an updated report on front rear and side underrun that could be used as a basis of a submission to the Federal Government, seeking the introduction of appropriate Australian Design Rules to address the issue of underrun.
Based on the work detailed above, it is recommended that design standards be as follows:
[A table.]
Given the consideration of levels of deceleration and road users under threat, it is recommended that the requirements apply to all heavy vehicles and possibly as low as vehicles of 3 tonne GVM.

Page x: Heavy vehicle – pedestrian, bicyclists and motor cyclists – effect of underrun
Underrun with heavy vehicle front or sides allows unprotected road users to be trapped underneath the vehicle or run over by the wheels.

Page xii: There are international underrun standards.

Page xiii: A front underrun barrier should have the following characteristics:
. . .
Energy absorbing barrier
– A layer of progressive crush material applied to hard surfaces.
Progressive crush of the energy absorbing barrier which starts off “soft” for unprotected road users and the side of cars, and increases progressively to suit frontal impacts with a range of cars

Page xiv: Side underrun barriers
In particular a clearance under the barrier of 550 mm is much too high to ensure unprotected road users are not run over by the wheels of the heavy vehicle.
Hence it is recommended the ECE standard be adopted with the changes below: underrun clearance 350 mm.

Effect of 20 mph traffic speed zones on road injuries in London, 1986-2006: controlled interrupted time series analysis

Published 10 December 2009, doi:10.1136/bmj.b4469
Cite this as: BMJ 2009;339:b4469

What is already known on this topic
Road injuries are among the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide.
There is evidence that reducing the speed and volume of traffic can reduce rates of road traffic injury.

What this study adds
20 mph zones are effective measures for reducing road injuries with no evidence of casualty migration to nearby roads.

Details with references at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/339/dec10_3/b446

Links to AC discussions include:
1. www.adelaidecyclists.com/forum/topics/risky-cycling-rarely-to-blame – posted on 20-Apr-2010 by Doddsy – http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/cycling-bike-acc... – Risky cycling rarely to blame for bike accidents, Study finds, 15-Dec-2009
2. www.adelaidecyclists.com/forum/topics/car-doors -- posted on 18-Aug-2010 by Doddsy
3. www.adelaidecyclists.com/forum/topics/cars-to-blame-in-most – posted on 22-Nov-2010 by Luke Hallam
4. www.adelaidecyclists.com/forum/topics/public-comment-invited-for – posted on 15-Dec-2010 by Sophia MacRae
5. www.adelaidecyclists.com/profiles/blogs/is-there-really-safety-in – posted on 1-Apr-2011 by tiny avenger

Government data supports that cyclists are safer road users than drivers. In 2010 in SA 51% of drivers considered responsible, c.f. with 30% of cyclists. Did not include in my comparison other road users, e.g. motor bikes, scooters, pedestrians, etc. More info at
Annual Road Crash Reports

But be aware that a study using bike helmet cameras indicates that authorities incorrectly blame cyclists.

Title: Naturalistic cycling study: Identifying risk factors for on-road commuter cyclists
Presenter: Dr Marilyn Johnson, Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), VIC
Death of cyclists due to road crashes. Opinions of drivers, police and coroner: over 60% of crashes cyclist found 'responsible', but a dead cyclist cannot defend himself.
A study where cyclists wore helmet cams contradicted that cyclists are responsible for crashes.
Cyclists number 35 (88% males). Recorded travel time 408 hours. During which time 54 events (2 collisions, 6 near collisions, 46 incidents)
– Most frequent was side-swipe 40.7% (group with drivers left turn type 72.2% of this).
– 87.0% drivers at fault.
– 83.3% drivers gave no post event reaction, e.g. no braking or slowing.
– 77.8% where indicator required and visible
– 56% indicated
– > 50% indicated only 1-3 seconds (insufficient)
– 70% occurred at intersections.
Safer road users are cyclists, generally safe and legal. Anticipatory, defensive or reactive to vehicular traffic. Frequent head checks so high situational awareness. This contradicts authority view that cyclists unaware and that cyclists at fault.

Cycling has many benefits

You can download these referenced fact sheets from The Cycling Promotion Fund
http://www.cyclingpromotion.com.au –> Resources –> Research Publications

1. Health Benefits of Cycling – 1_TheHealthBenefitsofCycling.pdf
2. Environmental Benefits of Cycling – 02_TheEnvironmentalBenefitsofCycling.pdf
3. Travelling by bicycle is faster than you think – Info_Sheet_3_travelling_by_bicycle_is_faster.pdf
4. A bike can save you money – BFA_Fct_Sht_SaveMoney_Web.pdf
5. Cycling is Good for Communities – BFA_Fct_Sht_GoodForCommunites_Web.pdf
6. Bicycles are good for Business – Issue_Sheet_6_Bicycles_are_good_for_business.pdf
7. Economic Benefits of Cycling for Australia – CPF_CyclingBenefits.pdf
8. Bicycles belong on the road, registration free – Info_Sheet_5_Bicycles_belong_on_the_road.pdf
9. Cycling and Safety – BFA_Fct_Sht_Safety_Web.pdf
10. Bicycle Sales 2008 – For the last ten years in Australia, bicycle sales have exceeded new car sales – CPF_BicycleSales2008.pdf

Title: Vehicle speeds in South Australia 2010
Authors: Kloeden CN, Woolley JE (2012)
Abstract: A systematic and ongoing method of measuring vehicle speeds was introduced in South Australia in 2007 in order to assess the effects of speed reduction countermeasures and to monitor the speed behaviour of South Australian motorists over time. This Report summarises the data collected in 2010 and makes comparisons with previous surveys and partial surveys dating back to 2002. Low speed roads showed a marked reduction in mean speed following the introduction of the default 50 km/h speed limit in 2003 and for some years after. Mean speeds on these roads generally went up from 2005 to 2007 but down again in 2008. Mean speeds on these roads remained relatively unchanged between 2008 and 2009. The metropolitan roads showed a reduction in speeds between 2009 and 2010. The speeds of vehicles on high speed rural roads have remained relatively unchanged between 2006 and 2010 with the exception of a significant drop in the speeds of vehicles on 100 km/h roads between 2007 and 2008. It is not clear what the reasons for the observed speed changes are although a lower police enforcement tolerance and a large advertising campaign may have played some role in the speed changes between 2007 and 2008.
Go to http://casr.adelaide.edu.au/publications/list/?id=1281 for link to download full report.

Title: Analysis of infringement data from fixed red light and speed cameras at signalised intersections in South Australia
Authors: Mackenzie JRR, Kloeden CN, Hutchinson TP (2012)
Abstract: Safety cameras are installed at some signalised intersections in South Australia. They photograph vehicles that enter the intersection after the signal has changed to red, or that exceed the speed limit by more than a selected amount. Infringement data at 21 safety camera sites in metropolitan Adelaide was used to track how disobey red light and speeding infringements changed during the first year of operation. It was found that both speeding and red light running decreased over time after the installation of a safety camera. Red light running decreased slowly over time, while speeding fell more rapidly. For the more serious levels of speeding, there was a more rapid fall in infringements during the first few weeks and a slower decline thereafter. Based on this, safety cameras appear to generate a worthwhile improvement in driver behaviour. The fact that continued reductions are seen during the first year of operation suggests that some learning on the part of drivers is occurring.
Go to http://casr.adelaide.edu.au/publications/list/?id=1286 for link to download full report.

Title: The safety attributes of registered passenger vehicles and vehicles involved in serious crashes in South Australia
Authors: Anderson RWG (2012)
Abstract: This report characterises the South Australian passenger vehicle fleet according to attributes related to safety, vehicle classification and mass, and the type of original buyer. Vehicles were disaggregated by year of sale. Examination of a sample of registered vehicles allowed the uptake of technology, and the change in other attributes of the general registered fleet, to be examined. Crashed vehicles were also characterised. The linkage of vehicle attributes to individual vehicles allowed us to examine safety attributes by year of sale in the two groups of vehicles.
Observations are made in relation to the origin of vehicles, with the new vehicle purchaser in mind. Improvement in the average safety of the stock of vehicles partly relies on new vehicle purchasers choosing vehicles with safety in mind. Other observations are made about trends in vehicle size, and the availability of safety systems over time. In general, the availability of technology is similar among crashed vehicles and registered vehicles for a given year of vehicle, although there is evidence in the data of the protective effect of ESC. However, given that crashed vehicles are older on average than in the general registered fleet, availability of safety equipment in crashed vehicles is lower than average.
Finally, some attention is paid the potential of effecting improvements in vehicle safety through fleet purchasing policies.
Go to http://casr.adelaide.edu.au/publications/list/?id=1271 for link to download full report.


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